Skip to Main Content

Pathophysiology (Nursing): PATHOPHYSIOLOGY-II

The physiology of abnormal states specifically : the functional changes that accompany a particular syndrome or disease

Course Description:

This course provides learners with the opportunities to build on, the concepts and knowledge about the endocrine & neurological related disorders and their impact on the functional status of the body. It also deals with the responses of the body that participate in manifestation of disease. The usefulness of knowledge, skills and attitudes to the nurse in his/her problem solving in the hospital, school, community or home is the determining factor in the selection and integration of the content.

Course Objectives

On completion of this course, learners will be able to:

  1. Describe the factors in the environment, which contribute to produce changes in Physiological processes.
  2. Discuss   the   relationship   of   normal   body   function   with   altered physiological mechanisms in disease process.
  3. Integrate the knowledge of the basic principles of Pathophysiology in a hospital and community environment.
Teaching/Learning Strategies:

Pre-reading, lectures, lab work, group discussion, quiz, guest lectures, case base learning, field visits, self study and pre/post tests, etc.

Unit I

Genetic Disorders

This unit will provide an overview of the genetic disorders with especial emphasis on some chromosomal disorders. i.e. Down’s syndrome, Turners syndrome and Kleinfelters’s syndrome.

At the end of this unit each learners will be able to:


  1. Differentiate between Genetic & Congenital disorder
  2. Define the following terminologies related to genetic disorders:
  • Trisomy
  • Monosomy
  • Polysomy
    1. Discuss the Chromosomal defects with special emphasis on aneuploidy
    2. Describe the pathophysiology and the clinical manifestation of the following genetics disorders.
  • Down’s syndrome
  • Turner’s syndrome
  • Kleinfelters syndrome

Unit II

Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders

This unit gives an overview of the endocrine and metabolic control mechanism & some common disorders of the endocrine glands.


1.    Review the hypothalamic pituitary control mechanism of hormone secretions in the body.

Differentiate between hypo & hyper function of the endocrine glands.

  1. Disorders of Growth Hormone:

In this session learners will discuss the functions and disorders of the growth hormone.

    1. Discuss the functions of growth hormone
    2. Discuss the disorders of Growth hormones (Gigantism, Acromegaly & Dwarfism)
  1. Disorders of endocrine pancreas (Diabetes Mellitus):

In this session, learners will gain an understanding of pathogenesis of different types of diabetes mellitus. Differences between Type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, acute and chronic complications of diabetes mellitus will be discussed.

  1. Review of Anatomy & Physiology of endocrine pancreas.
  2. Briefly discuss the classification of diabetes mellitus (DM)
  3. Discuss etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations of Type 1 DM & Type 2 DM.
  4. Identify the main differences between Type 1 & Type 2 DM.
  5. Identify pathogenesis and manifestations of the acute and chronic complications of diabetes mellitus.
  1. Disorders of Thyroid Gland & Parathyroid gland:

This unit deals with the review of structure of thyroid gland and parathyroid gland with emphasis on hormone production and action. This information is integrated while discussing the disorders of thyroid and parathyroid gland

  1. Review the Anatomy and Physiology of thyroid gland and parathyroid gland and hypothalamic pituitary thyroid feed back system.
  2. Discuss the disorders associated with Thyroid gland i.e. hyporthyroidism
    • goiter (non-toxic)
    • cretinism
    • Myxedema
  3. Discuss the disorders associated with Thyroid gland i.e hyperthyroidism
    • Grave’s disease
    • Goiter (toxic)
  4. Discuss    the    mechanism    of    action    of    parathyroid    hormone (parathormone and calcitonin)
  5. Explain the effects of hypo and hyper parathyroidism on the body systems such as Renal and musculoskeletal system
  1. Disorders of Adrenal gland

In this unit the focus is on the hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex and the importance of these hormones to vital functions of the body. Disorders related to hyper secretion and hypo secretion of the adrenal cortex are discussed.

  1. Review the Anatomy and Physiology of the Adrenal gland
  2. Discuss the functions of adrenal cortex hormones (corticosteroid)
  3. Discuss the following
    • Cushing’s syndrome
    • Addison’s disease.


Alteration in Muscloskeletal support and movement. (Trauma & Injury):

This session learners will study about the trauma of skeletal structures. This session will also cover the pathological processes of metabolic bone disease and inflammatory joint diseases. At the end of this unit each learners will be able to:

Unit III

 Disorders of Neurological System

In this unit the learners will gain an understanding of the alteration of sensory function involving dysfunction of the general sense includes Pain, and special senses i.e. eye & ear. Alteration of the neurological function that is cerebro-vascular accident ( CVA’s & Stroke ) will also be discussed

  1. Pain

At the completion of this unit learners will be able to

  1. Review the concept of somatosensory pathway.
  2. Describe the function of Nociceptors in response to pain information.
  3. Describe the function of endogenous analgesic mechanism as they relate to transmission of pain information.
  4. Describe the proposed mechanism of pain relief associated with the use of heat, cold & TENS i.e. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.
  5. Disorders of Neurological function

At the completion of this unit learners will be able to:

  1. Review the major vessels in the cerebral circulation.
  2. Review the, blood brain, & brain cerebrospinal fluid barrier.
  3. Explain the degeneration of the nervous tissue that cause alteration in cerebral blood flow (stroke).
    • Risk factors and types of stroke
    • Transient Ischemic Attacks (TIAS)

Unit IV

 Disorder of Special Senses (Eye & ear)

At the completion of this unit learners will be able to:

  1. Review the A & P of eye & ear
  2. Discuss some common visual & auditory dysfunction
    • Glaucoma
    • Tinnitus & hearing Loss


 Degenerative Disorders

In this unit the learners will gain an understanding of the degenerative disorders of the cardiac vascular, nervous and respiratory system. At the completion of this unit learners will be able to:

  1. Cardiovascular Disorders:
    1. Review    the    following    structure    that    support    the    cardiac metabolism i.e.
      • coronary circulation ( collateral arteries)
      • heart action i.e. conduction system ,myocardial contraction and relaxation
    2. Explain    the    mechanism    of    blood    vessels   obstruction    in atherosclerosis
    3. Discuss the factors effecting cardiac performance in the light of Frank Starling and Lapcalce’s law i.e. preload, after load, & contractility.
    4. Eexplain the pathophysiological changes in patients with ischemic heart diseases i.e.
      • myocardial ischemia (angina & its types)
      • myocardial infarction