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Orthodontics: Course Outline

Orthodontic treatments like braces help move teeth that are crooked or that do not fit together right. By fixing these problems, orthodontics can also help keep your mouth healthy.

Course Outline


  1. Definitions and Terminologies
  2. Types
  • Preventive
  • Interceptive
  • Corrective
  1. Aims and needs for orthodontic treatment

Growth and Development

  1. Basic concepts and definitions
  2. Variables affecting growth
  3. Prenatal and postnatal craniofacial growth
  4. Methods of studying growth
  5. Theories of growth
  6. Clinical application of growth and development in orthodontics
  7. TMJ Development


  1. Normal Occlusion
  2. Andrews Six Keys of Occlusion

Diagnostic Aids in Orthodontics

  1. History
  2. Clinical Evaluation
  • Extraoral examination
  • Intraoral examination
  1. Radiographs
  1. Perapical X-Ray
  2. Orthopantomogram
  3. Occlusal X-rays
  4. Cephalometric X-ray
  • Identifying relevant anatomical structures and landmarks
  • Tracing
  • Analyses
  1. Tooth mass and size analyses
  • Cast analysis
  • Bolton Analysis
  • Mixed Dentition analysis
  1. Formulation of problem list

Dental radiology

  1. Roentgen Anatomy of teeth, jaws and T.M.Joints
  2. Variations within normal limits, and abnormalities
  3. Different types of X-Rays machines
  4. Varieties of X-Ray Films: Extra Oral, Intra oral, Bite wing andOcclusal films
  5. Film taking and exposure procedures
  6. Film development techniques
  7. Indications and uses of dental radiology
  8. Interpretation of films
  9. Radiation Hazards


Course Outline

Development of dentition and occlusion

  1. Prenatal development of dentition
  2. Features of Primary dentition
  3. Mixed dentition period
  4. Permanent dentition period
  5. Dimensional changes in dental arch
  6. Variations in development including size, form, number and position of teeth
  7. Factors affecting development.


  1. Definitions
  2. Classification

Etiology of malocclusion

  1. Local factors
  2. Heredity
  3. Environmental Factors

Preventive and interceptive orthodontics

  1. Diagnosis and Management of Habits
  2. Space supervision
  3. Space maintainers
  4. Space regainers
  5. Serial Extractions

Bone metabolism

  1. Normal Structure of Periodontal Ligament and Bone
  2. The role of bone in eruption and stabilization
  3. Effects of Orthodontic force
  4. Factors affecting tooth movement


  1. Concepts, Types and Control of Anchorage
  2. Types of Wires and Alloys used in orthodontics
  3. Ideal properties of Orthodontic wires and comparison of different alloys

Retention and relapse

  1. Concepts of retention and relapse
  2. Occlusal Stability and factors related to retention
  3. Strategies of management

Removable appliances

  1. Functional appliances
  • Types
  • Indications
  • Construction
  1. Introduction to various extraoral appliances for tooth movement
  2. Expansion appliances


Text Books

Reference Books

Course Outline

Fixed appliances

  1. Introduction and background of different systems
  2. Indications and drawbacks
  3. Components and its accessories
  4. Edgewise and Straight Wire systems
  5. Bonding and Banding materials

Treatment planning

  1. Non-skeletal problems including Class I malocclusion, crowding, spacing, cross bite, open bite, deep bite
  2. Skeletal problems
  3. Class II
  • Division 1
  • Division 2
  1. Class III
  2. Extractions in Orthodontics
  3. Adjunctive treatment goals and principles

Surgical orthodontics

  1. Indications

Cleft Lip and Palate

  1. Etiology & Clinical Features

Practical and Clinical Orthodontics

  1. Wire bending exercises including
  • Adams clasp
  • Labial Bow
  • Canine retractor
  • Cantilever and Z spring
  • Arch wire fabrication+
  1. Making of removable appliances
  2. A comprehensive orthodontic case presentation of a non-skeletal malocclusion
  3. History
  4. Examination
  5. Cast analysis
  6. Ceph Analysis
  • Diagnosis
  • Suggested Treatment Plan
  • Mixed dentition analysis