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Ophthalmology (MBBS): Course Outline

The branch of medicine concerned with the study and treatment of disorders and diseases of the eye

Course Outline


  1. Vitreo-Retin· Basic anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology and pathologyof eyeball, adnexa and orbit.
  2. Orbit: Orbital cellulitis, proptosis, thyroid ophthalmopathy, enophthalmos, tumours, trauma.

 Lids: Blepharitis, stye, chalazion, trichiasis, entropion, ectropion,   ptosis, and common tumours.

  1. Conjunctiva: Infective and allergic conjunctivitis, pterygium, pingecula.
  2.  Cornea: Corneal transparency, corneal edema, corneal vascularization, Keratitis, corneal ulcers, corneal opacity, dry eye, corneal dystrophy and keratoplasty.
  3.  Sclera: Episcleritis, scleritis, scleral discoloration.
  4.  Lacrimal Apparatus: Epiphora, lacrimation, dry eye, dacryocystitis (acute & chronic), lacrimal gland tumours.
  5. Uveal Tract: Uveitis, and its differential diagnosis from other causes of the red eye.
  6. Lens: Cataract classification, aetiology, management including visual rehabilitation and biometry.

Glaucoma: Aetiology, classification, diagnosis and generalprinciples a: Primary retinal detachment, vitreous detachment and haemorrhage, diabetic retinopathy, hypertensive retinopathy, retinal artery and vein occlusion, retinitis pigmentonsa, retinoblastoma, age related macular degeneration.

  1.  Neurophthalmology
  2.  Optic Nerve: Papilloedema, optic neuritis and optic atrophy.
  3.  Visual Pathway:Visual field defects in the lesions of optic nerve,optic chiasma, visual pathway and visual cortex.Cranial Nerve: Oculomotor, Trochlear, Abducent, Trigeminal and Facial cranial nerve paresis and palsies. Pupil: Pupillary pathways and reflexes with their common abnormalities.njuries: Blunt and perforating, Intra and extra ocular foreign   bodies, chemical injuries and burns and sympathetic ophthalmitis.
  4.  Squint: Amblyopia, phoria and tropia, paralytic and non paralytic.
  5.  Systemic Diseases: Diabetes, thyroid ophthalmopathy,    hypertension,collagen vascular disorders, ocular manifestations of  vitamin A deficiency.
  6.  Common causes, definition, standards of blindness and low vision aids.
  7.  Errors of refraction: Introduction to optical system of normal eye, emmetropia, myopia, hypermetropia, anisometropia, astigmatism, presbyopia, aphakia, pseudophakia, and refractive surgery.
  8.  Ophthalmic therapeutics: Antibiotics, anti viral, anti fungal, steroids, local anesthetics, anti glaucoma, fluorescein dye, mydriaticcycloplegic.
  9. Ocular emergencies Chemical burns, corneal ulcer, corneal foreign body, corneal exposure, inadvertent use of medicines like Atropine and Steroids, acute congestive glaucoma, perforated globe, leucocoria in   children, retinal artery and vein occlusion, acute vitreous haemorrhage, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and papillitis
  10. Ocular pharmacology
  11. Antibiotics
  12. Aminoglycosides e.g. Tobramycin eye drops
  13. Quinolones e.g. Ciprofloxacin eye drops
  14. Glaucoma medications
  15. Be ta blockers eye drops
  16. Prostaglandin analogue eye drops
  17. Acetazolamide tablets
  18. Mannitol 20% intravenous
  19. Steroids: Dexamethasone eye drops
  20. Antivirals: Acyclovir 3% eye ointment
  21. Antifungal: Miconazole eye drops
  22. Mydriatic-cycloplegics
  23. Atropine 1% eye drops
  24. Cyclopentolate 1% eye drops
  25. Tropicamide 1% eye drops

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