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Biochemistry (MBBS): Course Outline

Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. By controlling information flow through biochemical signaling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism.

Course Contents

1-Cell Biochemistry

  1. Introduction to biochemistry
  2. Biochemical composition and functions of the cell
  3. Biochemistry of eukaryotes, prokaryotes and archaea
  4. Cell membranes and their chemical composition
  5. Importance of lipids and proteins in cell membranes
  6. Signaling pathways and receptors
  7. Methods to study cell biochemistry (microscopy, centrifugation,spectrophotometry, chromatography, electrophoresis and thermal cycler)

2-Body fluids and pH regulation

  1. Ionization of water, weak acids and bases
  2. pH and pH scale
  3. pK values, dissociation constant and titration curve of weak acids
  4. ·Body buffers and their mechanism of action
  5. Henderson – Hasselbach‟s equation
  6. Acid base regulation in human body
  7. Biochemical mechanisms for control of water and electrolyte balance..


  1. Definition, biochemical function and classification
  2. Structure and functions of monosaccharides and their derivatives
  3. Disaccharides and their important examples
  4. Oligosaccharides and their combination with other macromolecules
  5. Polysaccharides and their important examples and biochemical role
  6. Biochemical importance of carbohydrates


  1. Definitions, biochemical importance and classification of proteins based on physiochemical properties
  2. Amino acids and their structure, properties and functions
  3. Classification and nutritional significance of amino acids
  4. Dissociation, titration and importance of amino acids
  5. Structure of proteins and their significance in pH maintenance
  6. Separation of proteins e.g. salting out, electrophoresis, chromatography, centrifugation

5-Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
    1-Chemistry of purines and pyrimidines, their types, structure and function
    2- Chemistry and structure of nucleoside and nucleotide and their biochemical role
    3- Derivatives of purines and pyrimidines, their role in health and disease
    4- Nucleic acids, their types, structure and functions (gout)
6-Lipids and Fatty Acids

   1-  Classification of lipids and their biochemical functions
   2- Structure and biochemical function of phospholipids, glycolipids and sphingolipids
   3- Classification of fatty acids and their biochemical functions
   4- Functions of essential fatty acids
   5- Identification of fats and oils (saponification, acid number)
   6- Eicosanoides and their function in health and disease

  7- Steroids and their biochemical role
  8- Cholesterol, its structure, chemistry and functions
  9- Lipid peroxidation and its significance


2-Properties of enzymes and catalysts
3-Functions of enzymes and catalysts
4-Co-enzymes and co-factors