Pathology: Course outline
- The students will be able to differentiate between normal and altered state of homeostasis
- Recognize various types and causes of cell injuries and cell death.
- Understand the pathogenesis and morphology of necrosis and Apoptosis
- Knowledge of cell adaptation (Physiological / Pathological)
- Describe the various cellular accumulations
- Definition of necrosis, apoptosis, ischemia, hypoxia, infarction and gangrene.
- Sequence of the structural and biochemical changes which occur in the cell in response to the following:
- Immunological injury e.g. Asthma /SLE/ Anaphylactic reaction
- Physical agents: e.g. Radiation
- Genetic defects e.g. Thalassaemia / hemophilia
- Nutritional deficiency e.g. anemia
- Infectious agents
- Viruses: e.g. Hepatitis
- Bacteria: e.g. Staphylococcus aureus
- Fungi: e.g. Candida
- Parasites: e.g. Malaria
- Irreversible and reversible injury.
- Critical mechanisms in cell injury.
- Especially with reference to ATP, mitochondria, calcium ions and cell membrane
- Role of free radicals
- Apoptosis and its significance.
- Exogenous and endogenous pigment deposition.
- Dystrophic and metastatic calcification along with clinical significance.
- Metabolic disorders
- lipid disorders, steatosis of liver, hyperlipidemia
- protein disorders
- carbohydrate disorders
- Adaptation to cell injury, atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia.
- The necrosis and its types.
- Patterns of necrosis, the mechanism and characteristic gross and microscopic findings
- The term gangrene and its pathological mechanism
- Intracellular accumulations
- Practical: Gross morphology (Heart, Liver, Prostate)