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Pathology: Course outline

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Course Outline


  1. The students will be able to differentiate between normal and altered state of homeostasis
  2. Recognize various types and causes of cell injuries and cell death.
  3. Understand the pathogenesis and morphology of necrosis and Apoptosis
  4. Knowledge of cell adaptation (Physiological / Pathological)
  5. Describe the various cellular accumulations


  1. Definition of necrosis, apoptosis, ischemia, hypoxia, infarction and gangrene.
  2. Sequence of the structural and biochemical changes which occur in the cell in response to the following:
  3. Ischemia
  4. Immunological injury e.g. Asthma /SLE/ Anaphylactic reaction
  5. Physical agents: e.g. Radiation
  6. Genetic defects e.g. Thalassaemia / hemophilia
  7. Nutritional deficiency e.g. anemia
  8. Infectious agents
  9. Viruses: e.g. Hepatitis
  10. Bacteria: e.g. Staphylococcus aureus
  11. Fungi: e.g. Candida
  12. Parasites: e.g. Malaria
  13. Irreversible and reversible injury.
  14. Critical mechanisms in cell injury.
  15. Especially with reference to ATP, mitochondria, calcium ions and cell  membrane
  16. Role of free radicals
  17. Apoptosis and its significance.
  18. Exogenous and endogenous pigment deposition.
  19. Dystrophic and metastatic calcification along with clinical significance.
  20. Metabolic disorders
  21. lipid disorders, steatosis of liver, hyperlipidemia
  22. protein disorders
  23. carbohydrate disorders
  24. Adaptation to cell injury, atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia.
  25. The necrosis and its types.
  26. Patterns of necrosis, the mechanism and characteristic gross and microscopic findings
  27. The term gangrene and its pathological mechanism
  28. Intracellular accumulations
  29. Practical: Gross morphology (Heart, Liver, Prostate)

Relevant Books