Otolaryngology (pronounced oh/toe/lair/in/goll/oh/jee) is the oldest medical specialty in the United States. Otolaryngologists are physicians trained in the medical and surgical management and treatment of patients with diseases and disorders of the ear,
Use of the otoscope to examine the external auditory meatus and tympanic membrane.
Basic examination of the nose.
Examination of the oropharynx, nasopharynx and laryngopharynx.
Examination of the neck.
Management of nosebleed and oral bleeding.
Instill nose and ear drops/medication.
Take swab from ear, nose and throat.
Tuning fork tests
Dry mopping of eyes
Basic anatomy and physiology of the ear.
Common ear symptoms and their relationship with ear diseases e.g. otalgia, otorrhea, hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo/dizziness.
Congenital abnormalities, Pre-auricular sinus, Trauma topinna/hematoma, Perichondritis of the auricle, Atresia : Congenital and Acquired Wax ear, Keratosis obturans, Foreign bodies in the ear, Otitis externa, : Furunculosis, Otomycosis, Malignant Otitis Externa.
Benign tumours of the external ear Osteoma/ exostosis, Malignant Tumours of the external ear: Squamous cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma
Perforation of tympanic membrane
Eustachian tube dysfunction
Acute Suppurative otitis media
Serous otitis media
Chronic Suppurative otitis media
CSOM without cholesteatoma
CSOM with Cholesteatoma
Complications of otitis media
Conductive deafness; differential diagnosis
Sensorineural hearing loss be able to differentiate between different causes
Meniers disease, Ototoxicity, Assessment of a deaf child
Vertigo: differential diagnosis
Facial nerve paralysis: Differential diagnosis of and its treatment.
Temporal bone fractures
The principles of Myringotomy/grommet insertion, tympanoplasty and mastoidectomy
Examination of the ear including the pinna, ear canal and otoscopy. Demonstrate examination under microscopy (EUM).
Facial nerve examination
Testing hearing with tuning fork (Rinne‟s test, Weber test, ABC test) and audiometry.
Assessment of Vestibular System: Nystagmus, Fistula test, Romberg‟s test and Caloric test
Presentation and management of common ear disease e.g. otitis externa, otitis media, glue ear, chronic suppurative otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, vertigo, otosclerosis and Meniere‟s disease, and facial palsy.
Identifying postoperative problems following ear surgery i.e. sensorineural hearing loss, facial nerve palsy, and vestibular dysfunction.
Radiology Plain, CT scan, MRI
Audiological:. Pure tone audiometery / impedance audiometery,
Anatomy and physiology of the nose.
History of the Symptoms: Nasal obstruction, Rhinorrhea, Sneezing,Epistaxis, Postnasal drip, Headache and facial pain. Rhinolalia, Disturbances of smell, Snoring, Nasal Deformity.
Examination of the nose including an assessment of the appearance, the septum, the turbinates, and the mucosa.
External nose, internal nose, postnasal space examination, rigid/ flexible endoscopy of nose and postnasal space.
Know the principles of management of a fractured nose and the timing of intervention.
To understand the principles of common nasal operations including septal surgery, functional endoscopic sinus surgery, and rhinoplasty.
Investigations: Plain radiology, CT Scan,Congenital Malformations of nose and paransal sinuses.
Nasal and Facial Trauma: Fracture Nasal Bones, Le Fort fractures