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Pharmacognosy: Course Outline (518-IIB)

Pharmacognosy is a branch of pharmaceutical sciences which focuses on drugs of herbal and natural origin. Although pharmacognosy mostly deals with medicinal herbs, some animal products and bacterial products are also discussed in it.

Course Outline

Volatile oils (essential oils)

  • Introduction
  • Significance sources
  • Active constituents
  • Methods of obtaining volatile oils
  1. Chemistry and classification of hydrocarbon volatile oils
  • Cubeb and turpentine oil
  1. Alcoholic volatile oils
  • Peppermint
  • Coriander
  • Cardamom
  1. Aldehydic volatile oils
  • Bitter orange peel
  • Sweet orange peel
  • Lemon
  • Cinnamon
  • Bitter almond oil
  1. Ketonic volatile oils
  • Camphor
  • Spearmint
  • Caraway
  • Buchu
  1. Phenolic volatile oils
  • Clove
  • Thyme
  1. Phenolic ether volatile oils
  • Fennel
  • Anise
  • Myristica‚Äč
  1. Oxide volatile oils
  • Eucalyptus oils
  • Rosemary
  1. Miscellaneous volatile oils
  • Allium
  • Anethum

Resins and oleoresins

  • Introduction
  • Classification
  • Active constituents and pharmacological uses of jalap
  • Turpentine
  • Asafoetida
  • Benzoin
  • Rosin
  • Cannabis
  • Podophyllum
  • Ipomea
  • Myrrh
  • Balsam

Tannins

  • Introduction
  • Classification
  • Biosynthesis
  • Extraction
  • Identification
  • Occurrence in plants their role in plant life and chemical study of tannins in kino
  • Myrobalan
  • Catechu
  • Nutgall
  • Castanea
  • Krameria

Natural toxicants

  1. General introduction to plant toxicology
  •  Definition
  •  Classification and chemical nature of plant toxins
  •  Plant toxicities in humans and animals
  1. Higher plant toxins
  • Essential oils
  • Terpene (cineol pine oil)
  • Phenyl propane (apiol safrole myristicin)
  • Monoterpene (thujone menthafuran)
  • Plant acids (oxalic acid amino acid resin acid)
  • Glycosides (cardiotonic cyanognic)
  • Alkaloids (imidazole pyrrolizidine tropane)
  1. Lower plant toxins
  • Bacterial toxins (staphylococcus aureus clostridium botulinum)
  • Algal toxins 
  1. Mycotoxins
  • Fungal toxins (aspergillus spp claviceps purpurea)
  • Mushrooms (amanita spp)

Course Outline

Natural toxicants

  1. Study of toxins
  • Prevention and control methods
  • Description
  • Pharmacognostic features
  • Pharmacological actions
  • Chemical constituents
  • Treatment side-effects
  • Contra-indications & warnings
  • Prevention and control methods of abrus precatorius
  • Papaver somniferum
  • Eucalyptus spp
  • Nicotiana tabaccum
  • Cannabis sativa
  • Digitalis purpurea
  • Datura stramonium poisoning
  1. An introduction to nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals
  1. Tumor inhibitors from plants
  • Introduction of anticancer agents of natural origin as catharanthusroseus
  • Colchicum autumnale
  • Podophyllum peltatum
  • Rifamycin antibiotics
  • Macrolide antibiotics
  • Anti-AIDS agents and immunostimulants
  1. Introduction to clinical pharmacognosy
  • General introduction and historical background of clinical pharmacognosy
  • Study of treatment by herbal medicines

Clinical use of herbs & herbal medicine

  1. Diabetes
  • Gymnema sylvestre
  • Melia azadirchta
  • Momordicacharantia
  • Syzygium jambulana
  1. Cardiac diseases
  • Digitalis spp
  • Convallaria majalis
  • Urgenia indica
  • Allium sativum
  • Punica granatum
  1. Hepatitis
  • Berberis vulgaris
  • Picrorhiza kurroa
  • Lawsonia innermis
  1. Respiratory diseases
  • Ficus religosa
  • Adhatoda vasica
  1. Skin diseases
  • Aloe vera
  • Angelica archangelica
  • Mentha piperita
  • Citrus spp
  • Commiphora mukul
  1. CNS disorders
  • Strychnos nux-vomica
  •  Datura stramonium
  • Cannabis sativa
  •  Papaver somniferum
  • Atropa belladonna
  1. Musculo-skeletal disorders
  • Nigella sativa
  • Phycotis ajowan
  • Trigonella foenum-graecum
  • Zingiber officinale
  1. Renal disorders
  • Cucumis melo
  • Berberis vulgaris
  • Zea mays
  • Tribulus terrestris
  1. Reproductive disorders
  • Saraca indica
  • Ruta graveolens
  • Nigella sativa
  • Glycyrrhiza glabra
  • Claviceps purpurea
  •  Myristica fragrance
  1. GIT disorders
  • Foeniculum vulgare
  • Ferula foetida
  • Cuminum cyminum
  • Aegle marmelos
  • Prunus domestica

Text Books

Relevant Books

E-Books