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Pharmacognosy: Course Outline (513-IIA)

Pharmacognosy is a branch of pharmaceutical sciences which focuses on drugs of herbal and natural origin. Although pharmacognosy mostly deals with medicinal herbs, some animal products and bacterial products are also discussed in it.

Course Outline

Separation and isolation of plant constituents

  • Introduction and use of spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques for the identification of natural products
  • Description and interpretation of ultraviolet
  • Infrared
  •  Mass
  •  Nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR) spectra and other advance techniques to elucidate the structure of natural products

Carbohydrates and related compounds

  • Introduction and classification of carbohydrates
  • Sugars as adjuvant in drugs
  • Role of impurities in sugar substances
  • Sucrose and sucrose containing drugs
  • Sucrose
  • Dextrose
  • Liquid glucose
  • Fructose
  • Lactose
  • Xylose
  • Caramel
  • Starch
  • Inulin
  • Dextrine etc
  • Cellulose and cellulose derivatives
  • Powdered cellulose
  • Microcrystalline cellulose
  • Methyl cellulose
  • Sodium Carboxy-methyl cellulose
  • Gums and mucilage
  • Tragacanth
  • Acacia
  • Sodium alginate
  • Agar
  • Pectin

Alkaloids

  •  Introduction
  •  Properties
  • Cassification
  • Function of alkaloids in plants
  • Methods of extraction and identification tests
  1. Pyridine-Piperidine alkaloids
  • Areca nut
  • Lobelia
  1. Tropane alkaloids
  • Belladonna
  • Hyoscyamus
  •  Stramonium
  1. Quinoline alkaloids
  •  Cinchona
  1. Isoquinoline alkaloids

  • Ipecacuanha
  • Opium
  1. Indole alkaloids
  • Rauwolfia
  • Catharanthus
  • Nux vomica
  • Physostigma
  • Ergot
  1. Imidazole alkaloids
  • Pilocarpus​
  1. Steroidal alkaloids
  • Veratrum​
  1. Alkaloidal amines
  •  Ephedra
  •  Colchicum
  1. Purine bases
  • Tea
  • Coffee

 

 

Course Outline

Glycosides

  • Introduction
  • Classification
  • Chemistry
  • Extraction
  • Isolation
  • Medicinal uses of
  1. Cardioactive glycosides
  • Digitalis
  • Strophanthus
  • White squill
  1. Anthraquinone glycosides
  • Cascara
  • Aloe
  • Rhubarb
  • Cochineal & Senna
  1. Saponin glycosides glycyrrhiza sarsaparilla
  2. Cyanophore glycosides wild cherry
  3. Isothiocyanate glycosides black mustard
  4. Lactone glycosides cantharide
  5. Aldehyde glycosides vanilla
  6. Miscellaneous glycosides gentian quassia dioscorea

Plant steroids

  • Introduction
  • Extraction
  • Isolation
  • Nomenclature sources
  • Uses of bile acids
  • Plant sterols
  • Steroidal sapogenins
  • Steroid hormones with anolides ecdysons​

Lipids

  • Introduction
  • Classification
  • Source
  • Active constituents
  • Pharmacological uses of
  1. Fixed Oils
  • Castor oil, Cotton seed oil, Olive oil, Peanut oil, Sun flower oil, Corn oil
  • Coconut oil, Almond oil, Linseed oil, Mustard oil, Sesame oil, Soybean oil
  1. Fats and related compounds
  • Theobroma oil
  • Lanolin
  1. Waxes
  • Bees wax
  • Carnauba waxSspermaceti
  • Jojoba oil 

 

Relevant Books

Text Books

E-Books