History, Definition and Scope of Orthopedics.
- Principles of recognition of injuries to the bones, joints and soft
- Tissue of explains limbs and spine; Detect and manage related musculoskeletal infections.
- Identify congenital malformations and deformities for referral with management;
- Recognize metabolic bone diseases.
- Explain pathology with diagnosis of neoplasm for appropriate.
- Referral and treatment; Explain associated pathology of common painful disorders.
- Deliver first aid measures for common sprains fractures and dislocations.
- Identify problems of patients severely injured in any kind of accidents inclusive of road traffic, explosions, falls, fights, etc.
- Apply dressings, splints, plasters and other immobilization techniques.
- Assist in drainage, debridement, sequestration, orthopedics, surgeries related to the problems listed below and amputations.
General Orthopaedic Problems / Diseases
- Identify, diagnose and treat common orthopaedic emergencies .
- Define common orthopaedic problems in a scientific manner and with logical reasoning with clear understanding of their effect on
- body systems inclusive of congenital and acquired problems (C1).
- Request relevant investigations (C2).
- Exhibit holistic approach to an injured patient and identify haemodynamically unstable patient.
- Identify the conditions/diseases effecting musculoskeletal system through their signs and symptoms (C1).
- Identify the drugs needed for a person with orthopaedic and related problems (C3);
- Explain the differential diagnosis with logical reasoning (C3);
- Interpret, explain and advise needs of rehabilitation for PPP, CP,Amputations.
- Prescribe treatment for common painful conditions.
- Understand medical ethics and its application to surgical procedures related to orthopaedics like amputations, hip replacements, etc.
- Identify the surgical procedures needed for a person with orthopaedic and related problems (C3).
- Communicate effectively with the patients.106
- Counsel and help patients and his/her family independently for making informed choices regarding relevant surgical procedures (P3).
Bone dysplasia (defect intrinsic to bone)
- Dwarf- Achondroplasia
Drugs Frequently used in Orthopaedics
- Antibiotics: Cephalosporins, Aminoglycosides, Fusidic Acid, Vancomycin.
- NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents), Diclofenac sodium Diclofenac Potassium, Naproxen, Piroxicam.
- Analgesics; Mefenamic Acid, Paracetamol, Tramadol, Sosegon.
- Calcium, Calcitonin, Vitamin D3, HRT (Premarin), Bi-phosphonates
- Anticoagulant: Heparin, low molecular weight heparin, Warfarin
- Anti-tubercular drugs
- Multivitamins (B6, B12), Morphine derivates, Muscle relaxants,Norflex, Ternelin
- Uricosuric Agents (Zyloric)
- Anti-depressants, Local Anaesthetic, Xylocaine, Abocaine
- Drugs for Acid Peptic Diseases
- Cartilage Tonics like, glucosamine, Chondroitin Sulphate and Hyaluronic Acid