Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

General Pathology: Course Outline

The course covers the major pathological principles and mechanisms of human diseases that include cellular adaptations, cellular injury, inflammation, tissue repair, hemodynamic and circulatory disorders, infectious diseases, environmental and nutritional

Course Outline (RLT-615)

1. Cell Injury and adaptation
Cell Injury

  • Reversible and Irreversible Injury
  • Fatty change, Pigmentation, Pathologic calcification
  • Necrosis and Gangrene

Cellular adaptation

  • Atrophy, Hypertrophy
  • Hyperplasia, Metaplasia, Aplasia

2. Inflammation
Acute inflammation

  • vascular changes, Chemotaxis, Opsonization and Phagocytosis
  • Enlist the cellular components and chemical mediators of acute inflammation
  • Differentiate between exudates and transudate

Chronic inflammation

  • Etiological factors, Granuloma

3. Cell repair and wound healing

  • Regeneration and Repair
  • Healing--- steps of wound healing by first and second intention
  • Factors affecting healing
  • Enlist the complications of wound healing

4. Haemodynamic disorders

  • Define and classify the terms Edema, Haemorrhage, Thrombosis, Embolism, Infarction &Hyperaemia
  • Define and classify Shock with causes of each
  • Describe the compensatory mechanisms involved in shock
  • Describe the possible consequences of thrombosis
  • Describe the difference between arterial and venous emboli

5. Neoplasia

  • Define the terms Dysplasia and Neoplasia with examples of each
  • Enlist the differences between benign and malignant neoplasms
  • Enlist the common etiological factors for Neoplasia
  • Define and discuss the different modes of metastasis


1. Adaptive Response

  • Endometrial Hyperplasia, Gross, Microscopic

2. Acute Inflammation

  • Morphological patterns

3. Recognition of Ulcer , Abscess
4. Neoplasia – Gross examination of Cystadenoma ovary (Serous / Mucinous), Teratoma ovary,
Cystadenocarcinoma ovary, Lipoma, Fibroiduterus


Course Outline


  1. Describe the defense mechanisms of the body.
  2. Describe the microbial mechanisms of invasion and virulence.
  3. Differentiate between sterilization and disinfection.
  4. Describe methods of disinfection and sterilization.
  5. Describe the principles of aseptic techniques.
  6. Describe universal precautions for infection control.
  7. Describe the general principles of the following serological tests:
  • ELISA – Hepatitis (A,B,C,D,E,G) Rubella, CMV and HIV
  • Haemagglutination – TPHA
  • Westem blot – HIV
  • ICT – Malaria
  1. Interpret: a) Culture reports, b) Serological reports and c) microscopic reports of gram stain and AFB stain.
  2. Describe the principles of proper collection and submission of specimens for laboratory investigations with due precautions.
  3. Describe the general characteristics and taxonomy of Bacteria,     Viruses and Fungi.
  4. Define communicable endemic, epidemic and pandemic diseases,carriers, pathogens, opportunists, commensals and colonizers.
  5. List the microorganisms responsible for infection of the body withespecial reference to oral cavity.
  6. Describe pathogenesis, treatment, epidemiology, prevention andcontrol of the following organisms.
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Fungus
  • Protozoa
  • Helminths


  • Agenesis, Dysgencsis, Aplasia, Hypoplasia, Hyperplasia, Metaplasia, Dysplasia,Neoplasia, Anaplasia, Atrophy and Hypertrophy.
  • Cell cycle and list cell types (stable, labile , permanent)
  • Mechanisms controlling cell growth.
  • Classification systems of tumors.
  • Characteristics of benign and malignant tumors.
  • Grading and staging system of tumors.
  • Biology of tumor growth.
  • Process of carcinogenesis.
  • Host defense against tumors.
  • Mechanism of local and distant spread.
  • Llocal and systemic effects of tumors.
  • Tumor markers used in the diagnosis and management of cancers.
  • Chemical, Physical agents and Viruses related to human cancer.
  • Epidemiology of common cancers in Pakistan.

The oral cavity

  • Leukoplakia.
  • Predisposing factors (pipe smoking, ill-fitting denture, alcohol abuse,irritant foods) of leukoplakia.
  • Risk factors of oral cancer
  • Clinical and morphological features of oral cancer
  • Benign and malignant tumours of salivary glands
  • Clinical and morphological features of plemorphic adenoma.


Text Books

Reference Book