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General Pathology for BDS: Course Outline

Modern pathology is practiced as both a clinical and an investigative science. Clinical pathology assists in disease diagnoses, based on observed changes in tissue structure or biochemistry, while the focus of investigative pathology is the elucidation.

Course Outline

Cell injury

  1. Terms necrosis, ischemia, hypoxia, infarction and gangrene
  2. Sequence of the ultrastructure and biochemical changes whichoccur in the cell in response to the following:
  • Ischemia
  • Immunological injury-eg. Asthma/SLE /Anaphylactic reaction
  • Physical agents: eg. Radiation
  • Genetic defects- eg. Thalassemia/haemophilia
  • Nutritional deficiency
  • Infectious agents
  • Viruses: eg. Hepatitis / Aids / HIV infections
  • Fungi: eg. Candida Albicans/Candidosis
  • Parasites: eg. Malaria
  1. Irreversible and reversible injury
  2. Apoptosis and its significance
  3. Necrosis and its types
  4. Exogenous and endogenous pigment deposition
  5. Dystrophic and metastatic calcification along with clinical significance
  6. Metabolic disorders
  • Lipid
  • Protein
  • Carbohydrate

Inflammation and mediators of inflammation

  • Describe the role of inflammation in the defense mechanisms of the body
  • Describe the vascular changes of acute inflammation and relate these to the morphological and tissue effects
  • Describe the process of chemotaxis, opsonization and phagocytosis
  • Describe the role of cellular components in inflammatory exudate
  • Differentiate between exudate and transudate
  • List the important chemical mediators of inflammation
  • Describe the pathway of arachidonic Acid metabolism
  • Discuss the role of products of arachidonic acid metabolism in inflammation
  • Describe the mechanism for development of fever, with reference to exogenous and endogenous pyrogens
  • Describe chronic inflammation including granulomas
  • Describe granuloma , its type and causes
  • Describe the systemic effects of acute and chronic inflammation and their possible outcomes
  • Describe the signification of ESR
  • Give two example of induced hypothermia in medicine
  • Describe the pathogencsis, clinical features and lab
  • Diagnosis of gout
  • Describe the management of acute and chronic gout

Wound healing

  • Describe the differences between repair and regeneration.
  • Describe wound healing by first and second intention.
  • Discuss the factors that influence the inflammatory reparative response.
  • Compare wound contraction with cicatrization.
  • Describe the formation of granulation tissue.
  • Describe the complications of wound healing

Disorders of circulation

  1. Thrombo-Embolic disorders and their modalities:
  • Explain the pathogenesis of thrombosis.
  • Describe the possible consequences of thrombosis.
  1. Disorders of the circulation and shock
  • Define edema, ascites, hydrothorax and anasarca.
  • Describe the pathophysiology of edema with special emphasis on CHF.
  • Describe the pathogenesis of four major types of shock (Hypovolemic, cardiogenic, vasovagal and septic) and list their causes.
  • Describe the compensatory mechanisms involved in shock.

Course Outline


  1. Describe the defense mechanisms of the body.
  2. Describe the microbial mechanisms of invasion and virulence.
  3. Differentiate between sterilization and disinfection.
  4. Describe methods of disinfection and sterilization.
  5. Describe the principles of aseptic techniques.
  6. Describe universal precautions for infection control.
  7. Describe the general principles of the following serological tests:
  • ELISA – Hepatitis (A,B,C,D,E,G) Rubella, CMV and HIV
  • Haemagglutination – TPHA
  • Westem blot – HIV
  • ICT – Malaria
  1. Interpret: a) Culture reports, b) Serological reports and c) microscopic reports of gram stain and AFB stain.
  2. Describe the principles of proper collection and submission of specimens for laboratory investigations with due precautions.
  3. Describe the general characteristics and taxonomy of Bacteria,     Viruses and Fungi.
  4. Define communicable endemic, epidemic and pandemic diseases,carriers, pathogens, opportunists, commensals and colonizers.
  5. List the microorganisms responsible for infection of the body withespecial reference to oral cavity.
  6. Describe pathogenesis, treatment, epidemiology, prevention andcontrol of the following organisms.
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Fungus
  • Protozoa
  • Helminths


  • Agenesis, Dysgencsis, Aplasia, Hypoplasia, Hyperplasia, Metaplasia, Dysplasia,Neoplasia, Anaplasia, Atrophy and Hypertrophy.
  • Cell cycle and list cell types (stable, labile , permanent)
  • Mechanisms controlling cell growth.
  • Classification systems of tumors.
  • Characteristics of benign and malignant tumors.
  • Grading and staging system of tumors.
  • Biology of tumor growth.
  • Process of carcinogenesis.
  • Host defense against tumors.
  • Mechanism of local and distant spread.
  • Llocal and systemic effects of tumors.
  • Tumor markers used in the diagnosis and management of cancers.
  • Chemical, Physical agents and Viruses related to human cancer.
  • Epidemiology of common cancers in Pakistan.

The oral cavity

  • Leukoplakia.
  • Predisposing factors (pipe smoking, ill-fitting denture, alcohol abuse,irritant foods) of leukoplakia.
  • Risk factors of oral cancer
  • Clinical and morphological features of oral cancer
  • Benign and malignant tumours of salivary glands
  • Clinical and morphological features of plemorphic adenoma.


Text Books

Reference Book