General Pathology: Course Outline
Course Outline (RLT-615)
1. Cell Injury and adaptation
- Reversible and Irreversible Injury
- Fatty change, Pigmentation, Pathologic calcification
- Necrosis and Gangrene
- Atrophy, Hypertrophy
- Hyperplasia, Metaplasia, Aplasia
- vascular changes, Chemotaxis, Opsonization and Phagocytosis
- Enlist the cellular components and chemical mediators of acute inflammation
- Differentiate between exudates and transudate
- Etiological factors, Granuloma
3. Cell repair and wound healing
- Regeneration and Repair
- Healing--- steps of wound healing by first and second intention
- Factors affecting healing
- Enlist the complications of wound healing
4. Haemodynamic disorders
- Define and classify the terms Edema, Haemorrhage, Thrombosis, Embolism, Infarction &Hyperaemia
- Define and classify Shock with causes of each
- Describe the compensatory mechanisms involved in shock
- Describe the possible consequences of thrombosis
- Describe the difference between arterial and venous emboli
- Define the terms Dysplasia and Neoplasia with examples of each
- Enlist the differences between benign and malignant neoplasms
- Enlist the common etiological factors for Neoplasia
- Define and discuss the different modes of metastasis
1. Adaptive Response
- Endometrial Hyperplasia, Gross, Microscopic
2. Acute Inflammation
- Morphological patterns
3. Recognition of Ulcer , Abscess
4. Neoplasia – Gross examination of Cystadenoma ovary (Serous / Mucinous), Teratoma ovary,
Cystadenocarcinoma ovary, Lipoma, Fibroiduterus
- Describe the defense mechanisms of the body.
- Describe the microbial mechanisms of invasion and virulence.
- Differentiate between sterilization and disinfection.
- Describe methods of disinfection and sterilization.
- Describe the principles of aseptic techniques.
- Describe universal precautions for infection control.
- Describe the general principles of the following serological tests:
- ELISA – Hepatitis (A,B,C,D,E,G) Rubella, CMV and HIV
- Haemagglutination – TPHA
- Westem blot – HIV
- ICT – Malaria
- Interpret: a) Culture reports, b) Serological reports and c) microscopic reports of gram stain and AFB stain.
- Describe the principles of proper collection and submission of specimens for laboratory investigations with due precautions.
- Describe the general characteristics and taxonomy of Bacteria, Viruses and Fungi.
- Define communicable endemic, epidemic and pandemic diseases,carriers, pathogens, opportunists, commensals and colonizers.
- List the microorganisms responsible for infection of the body withespecial reference to oral cavity.
- Describe pathogenesis, treatment, epidemiology, prevention andcontrol of the following organisms.
- Agenesis, Dysgencsis, Aplasia, Hypoplasia, Hyperplasia, Metaplasia, Dysplasia,Neoplasia, Anaplasia, Atrophy and Hypertrophy.
- Cell cycle and list cell types (stable, labile , permanent)
- Mechanisms controlling cell growth.
- Classification systems of tumors.
- Characteristics of benign and malignant tumors.
- Grading and staging system of tumors.
- Biology of tumor growth.
- Process of carcinogenesis.
- Host defense against tumors.
- Mechanism of local and distant spread.
- Llocal and systemic effects of tumors.
- Tumor markers used in the diagnosis and management of cancers.
- Chemical, Physical agents and Viruses related to human cancer.
- Epidemiology of common cancers in Pakistan.
The oral cavity
- Predisposing factors (pipe smoking, ill-fitting denture, alcohol abuse,irritant foods) of leukoplakia.
- Risk factors of oral cancer
- Clinical and morphological features of oral cancer
- Benign and malignant tumours of salivary glands
- Clinical and morphological features of plemorphic adenoma.