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General Pharmacology for BDS: Course Outline

Pharmacology is the study of drugs. It involves examining the interactions of chemical substances with living systems, with a view to understanding the properties of drugs and their actions, including the interactions between drug molecules and receptors.

Course Outline

General Pharmacology

  1. Definition of drug and drug nomenclature
  2. Branches/Divisions of pharmacology
  3. Sources of drugs
  4. Active principles of drug and Pharmacology
  5. Dosage forms and doses of drugs
  6. Drug administration
  7. Absorption of drugs and processes involved in drug absorption
  8. Factors modifying absorption of drugs
  9. Transport of drugs across cell-membrane
  10. Bio availability, its clinical significance and factors affecting bio availability
  11. Drugs reservoirs, distribution and redistribution of drugs, plasma protein binding
  12. Pro-drug, Bio-transformation of drugs, enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition and entero-hepatic circulation
  13. Plasma half-life of drugs, steady state concentration, its clinical importance and factors affecting it
  14. Excretion of drugs
  15. Mechanism of drug action
  16. Dose response curves, structure-activity relationship
  17. Factors modifying action and doses of drugs
  18. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and receptors

Locally Acting Drugs

  • Demulcents, Emollients, Irritants, Counter irritants, Astringents, antiseborrheics, locally acting enzymes
  • Antiseptics and disinfectants
  • Ectoparasiticides

Drugs Acting on Gastrointestinal Tract:

  • Anti emetics

Cardiovascular Drugs

  • Antiarrythmic drugs
  • Ionotropic drugs
  • Antianginal drugs
  • Thrombolytics
  • Antihyperlipidemic drugs

Cholinergic Drugs

  • Choline esters
  • Anticholine-Esterases
  • Cholinomimetic alkaloids

Anti- Cholinergic Drugs

  • Anti muscarinic
  • Non catecholamine


  • Alpha adrenergic blockers
  • Beta adrenergic receptor blockers

Skeletal Muscle Relaxants

  • Neuromuscular blocking agents
  • D-Tubocurarine
  • Suxamethanin
  • Central muscle relaxants
  • Meprobromate
  • Mephenesim

Course Outline

Central Nervous System

  1. Sedative-Hypnotics
  2. Antiepileptics
  3. General anaesthetics
  4. Local anesthetics
  5. Drugs for movement disorder/muscle relaxant
  6. Alcohol
  7. Drugs for Migraine
  8. Stimulants of the central nervous system
  • Caffeine
  • Theophyline
  • Theobromine
  • Brain stem stimulants
  • Picrotoxin
  • Nikethamide
  • Ethamivan
  • Doxapram
  1. Psychopharmacology
  • Anti-Psychotics
  • Anxiolytics
  • Anti-Depressant/Anti mania

Drugs acting on Endocrine System

  • Drugs-Hypothalamic drugs
  • Adrenocorticoids
  • Sex hormones
  • Thyroid/Parathyroid drugs
  • Pancreatic hormones and oral hypoplyglcemic agents



  • Provisional diagnosis
  • Investigation
  • Empirical therapy
  • Prescribing after culture and sensitivity



  • Groups of vitamins prescribed
  • Vitamins prescribed on basis of therapeutic indication or empirical
  • Single / multiple vitamins prescribing
  • Rational with use of vitamins



  • Various groups of analgesics prescribed
  • Single/Multiple adverse drug prescription
  • Nonspecific indications of analgesic prescribed