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Instrumental Chromatographic Techniques: Course Outline

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Course Outline

1. Introduction of Electrochemical Methods:

Classification of electrochemical methods, Brief overview on techniques, i.e potentiometry and voltammetry, electrochemical technology.

2. Controlled Current Techniques / Potentiometry

Introduction of Chronpotentiometry, Definition for ion selective/sensitive electrode (ISE), Cell schemes, Half cell, Concept of electrode potential, Output signal, E/mV and Nernst equation, Electrode sensitivity, Calibration plot (E/mV vs Log c) , Nernst slope, electrochemical sensors , Mechanism and improvisation. Examples glass,fluoride, Ca and K electrodes. Electrochemical analysis of pharmaceutical and biological substances.

3. Controlled Potential Techniques / Voltammetric Techniques:

Basic Principle and Instrumentation. Definition for chronamperometry, cyclic voltammetry, Electrochemical cell, Output signal, I/mA and Illkovic equation,Electrochemical series, Standard potential(E0), electroactivity, Electrode/redox process, Phenomenon of various layers in solution around inert electrodes. Types of current generated by the electrodes processes, Mass transfer of solutes/analytes to the electrode surface, Polarization and overpotential (η). Automation of analysis involving ion selective electrodes (ISE). Rotating disc voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, Flow injection analysis (FIA), Voltammetric Sensors.

4. Polarography:

Introduction and Theoretical Basis. Principal and Instrumentation of Polarography. Classical and advance techniques, Dropping mercury electrode (DME), Characteristics – purity, Strength and Weaknesses. Instrumentation and sample cell requirements. Ohmic drop (iR). I/E plot, Polarographic waves, Quantative (diffusion current, Id) and Qualitative (half potential, E1⁄2) analysis, Calibration plot. Checking of reversibility of electrode process at a DME by graph and Meites method. Pulse and stripping techniques. Exploitation of the growth of Hg drop. In depth discussion on various ways of doing stripping analysis. I/E plot. Solid mercury electrode, i.e. mercury thin film electrode (MTFE). Applications of Polarography in Inorganic, Organic and Clinical Samples Analysis.

5. Separation Techniques:

New developments in chromatographic techniques, Basic concept and Instrumentation to Gas chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC),

6. Spectrophotometric Techniques Basic principle and Instrumentations of Atomic Absorption and Emission techniques, Mass spectrometry, Application of these techniques in various type of analysis.