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Research and Statistics: Course Outline (BMSC1T016)

This course is study communication behavior and enable them become knowledgeable and critical consumers of research.


  • What is Research?
  • Scientific approach and its characteristics
  • Development of Mass Media Research
  • Research and purposeful investigation is encouraged by the Qur’an Sad (38): 29; Ali-Imran (3): 190-91; al- Ra’d (13): 3; al-An’am (6):11; more Al-Qur’an (30): 9, (30): 42; (40): 82; (47): 10; (3): 137; (16): 36; (27): 69;  (29): 20).
  • Reasoning in Islamic Perspective
  • Types of Research
  • Quranic Method of Reasoning and Enquiry
  • Research Procedure
  • Identification and Formulation of Research Problem and Hypothesis
  • Role of theory, observation and brainstorming in formulation of a Research Problem
  • Hypothesis, formulation of research hypotheses, types of hypothesis
  • The research QUESTIONS depend on one’s worldview – the difference between Muslim and non-Muslim researchers; and areas of interest.
  • Concepts, Constructs and Variables
  • Types of variables
  • Operational definitions of variables, concepts and constructs
  • Variable control: Internal validity and  External validity
  • Research Designs
  • Experimental Design
  • Non-Experimental Designs
  • Survey Design
  • Content Analysis
  • Qualitative Designs
  • Field Observation
  • Focus Group Discussion
  • Intensive Interviews
  • Case Studies
  • Discourse Analysis
  • Genre Analysis
  • Semiotic Analysis            
  • Sampling Techniques
  • Levels of Measurement
  • Scales
  • Scientific Report Writing
  • APA Publication Manual 


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