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Statistical Methods: What is References

Statistical methods are mathematical formulas, models, and techniques that are used in statistical analysis of raw research data

What is Referencing?

When you write any paper, assignment, you are required to refer to the work of other authors. Each time you do so, it is necessary to identify their work by making reference to it— both in the text of your assignment and in a list at the end of your assignment. This practice of acknowledging authors is known as referencing.  References must be provided whenever you use someone else’s opinions, theories, data or organization of material. You need to reference information from books, articles, videos, computers, other print or electronic sources, and personal communications. 

Importance of Referencing

  • Used to avoid plagiarism
  • If readers want it provides original source
  • Helps to Improve writing skills
  • It makes your arguments authentic.
  • Shows that you have read widely.
  • Can be helpful in getting good scores in exam

No need to reference

  • when you are writing your own observations or experiment results (for example, a report on a field trip);
  • when you are writing about your own experiences (for example, a reflective journal);
  • when you are writing your own thoughts, comments or conclusions in an assignment;
  • when you are evaluating or offering your own analysis;
  • when you are using 'common knowledge' (facts that can be found in numerous places and are likely to be known by a lot of people) or folklore;
  • when you are using generally accepted facts or information (this will vary in different disciplines of study. If in doubt, ask your tutor).

Popular Referencing Styles

  • APA: (American Psychological Association) used for Education, Psychology, and Sciences
  • Chicago/Turabian:  used for Business, History, and the Fine Arts
  • Harvard: Author-Date referencing style
  • MLA: (Modern Language Association) is used for the Humanities
  • Vancouver: (Numbered Referencing Style) used for Medicine