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Anatomy and Physiology (Nursing): Anatomy and Physiology II

This course introduces learners to the structures and functions of the human body. Knowledge of Anatomy & Physiology will provide a better understanding and integration to theoretical & clinical practice in nursing care situation

Course Outline

Anatomy and Physiology- II                            

Course description:

This course is a continuation of Anatomy & Physiology I, introduces learners to the structures and functions of the human body. Knowledge of Anatomy & Physiology will provide a better understanding and integration to theoretical & clinical practice in nursing care situation.

Course Objectives:

On the completion of this course, the learners will be able to:

  1. Describe the structures and functions of various systems of the human body.
  2. Discuss the role of homeostasis in maintaining normal body functioning.
  3. Relate the basic anatomy & physiology concepts to the nursing care of clients.
Teaching/Learning Strategies:

Interactive lectures, Demonstration and dissection of animal cadaver, small group discussion, CD Roam, Quizzes, Presentations, Class activities, Self study and viva practice.

Course Expectations:
  1. Attend all lectures, as per policy.
  2. Pre-reading and preparation for each class.
  3. Completion of test and examination on due dates.
  4. Participates actively in classes and tutorials.

Unit Objectives

Unit I:         Respiratory System:

At the end of this unit learners will be able to:

  1. Define respiratory system.
  2. Define respiration.
  3. Describe the structure and the function of following
    • The upper respiratory tract (Nose, Pharynx, Larynx)
    • The lower respiratory tract (Trachea, Bronchial tree, lungs)
  4. Discuss the physiology of respiration by explaining the mechanism of
    • Pulmonary Ventilation
    • External Respiration
    • Internal Respiration
  5. Discuss nervous control of respiration
  6. Briefly discuss the lung volumes & capacities

Unit II:        Urinary System:

At the end of this unit learners will be able to:

  1. Define the Urinary System.
  2. List the organs of Urinary system
  3. Discuss the location of the kidney.
  4. Discuss kidneys in terms of external anatomy, gross structure & microscopic structure.
  5. Describe the role of each component of nephron in terms of filtration, selective reabsorption & secretion involved in the formation of urine.
  6. Briefly discuss the role of kidney in maintaining water and electrolyte balance.
  7. Discuss the structure and functions of
    • Ureters
    • Urinary bladder
    • Urethera
  8. Briefly explain the process of micturition

Unit III:       Nervous System:

At the end of this unit learners will be able to:

  1. Define Nervous system.
  2. Briefly discuss organization of Nervous system.
  3. Describe the structure and function of Neuron and neuroglia.
  4. Define nerve & its types.
  5. Identify the principle parts of the brain i.e. Hind brain, Mid brain & Fore brain.
  6. Describe the three meninges covering the brain & spinal cord.
  7. Identify the ventricles of the brain.
  8. Briefly explain the formation, circulation, reabsorption & functions of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
  9. Describe the structure of cerebrum in terms of:
    • Lobes (sulci and gyrus)
    • Functional areas
  10. Discuss the structure & function of:
    • Brain stem (Mid brain, pons & medulla oblongata)
    • Cerebellum
  11. Discuss the general & gross sectional structure of the spinal cord.
  12. Describe reflex arc.
  13. Discuss the distribution of the spinal nerves and spinal plexus.
  14. Discuss the cranial nerves in terms of:
    • Central connection
    • Peripheral connection
    • Functions
  15. Define Autonomic Nervous System
  16. Discuss the sympathetic and Para sympathetic Nervous system.

Unit IV:        Special Senses:

At the end of this unit learners will be able to:

  1. Describe the structure and function of ear
  2. Discuss the transmission of sound through the ear.
  3. Describe the physiology of hearing and Balance.
  4. Describe eye in terms of:
    • Structure related to vision
    • Accessory structures
  5. Discuss image formation by describing refraction, accommodation and constriction of the pupil.
  6. Explain the process of dark adaptation and light adaptation.

Unit V         Endocrine System:

  1. Define Endocrine system
  2. Identify Endocrine glands and Endocrine tissues present in the body
  3. Discuss types of Hormones, target cells, target organ
  4. Briefly discuss Mechanism of Action of Hormone (protein and steroids)
  5. Discuss the location and structure of pituitary gland.
  6. Discuss the role of hypothalamic hormones in the regulation of pituitary gland secretions.
  7. Discuss the function of the hormones secreted by anterior and posterior pituitary gland.
  8. Briefly discuss the structure, function & hormones of the following glands
    • Thyroid
    • Para Thyroid
    • Pineal
    • Adrenal
    • Pancreas

Unit VI:      Reproductive System

At the end of this unit learners will be able to:

  1. Define Reproduction
  2. Define Reproductive System.
  3. List the function of male & female reproductive system
  4. Categorize the Female Reproductive organs into:
    • Essential organs
    • Accessory organs
  5. Discuss the location and structure of Female External Genitalia (VULVA).
  6. Describe   the   location,   Structure   &   function   of   Female   Internal Genitalia
  7. Discuss the Female Reproductive Cycles (ovarian and menstrual cycles)
  8. Categorize the male reproductive organs into
  • Essential organs
  • Accessory organs
  1. Location and structures involved in the male reproductive system.
  2. Describe the structure and function of testis and accessory organs.

Reference Books

e-Books