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Basic Medical Immunology and Serology: Course Code RLT-624

Course Content


1. General immunology

A. Innate and adaptive immunity
B. Antigen and antigenecity
C. Antibodies and immunoglobulin
D. B-cell maturation, activation, differentiation and memory
E. Basic structure of antibodies
F. Antibody-mediated effector functions
G. Antibody classes and biological functions
H. B cell responses
I. Primary and secondary immune response
J. Cell mediated and humoral immunity
K. Immune system
L. Hypersensitivity
M. Autoimmunity
N. Immune mediated diseases
O. Immunization
P. Immune deficiency

2. Components of the nonspecific immune system

A. Mechanical barriers
B. Chemical and biochemical barriers
C. Cellular components (NK cells, Polymorphonuclear phagocytes, marcophages)
D. Complement system and pathways
E. Molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in inflammation

3. Immunological Techniques

A. General considerations
B. Agglutination reactions
C. Precipitation reactions
D. Immunodiffusion techniques
E. Double diffusion
F. Single redial Immunodiffusion
G. Immunoelectrophoresis
H. Complement fixation test
I. Immunoflourescence
a. Direct
b. Indirect
J. Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA)


Course Content


4. Immunochemical Techniques

A. Quantitation of IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE in serum and other body fluids
B. Immunoelectrophoretic analysis of serum immunoglobulin abnormalities
C. Detection /quantitation of Bence-Jones protein in the urine
D. Cryoglobulin determination and analysis
E. Test for circulation immune complexes by immunochemical methods
F. Immunochemical and electrophorphoretic analysis of CSF
G. Measurement of overall complement function
H. Total haemolytic and alternative pathway titrations of complement components (especially C3, C4, factor Band C1esterase inhibitor)
I. Electrophoretic examination for altered complement components
J. Other serum protein determinations including acute phase proteins (CRP etc.), Carcinoembryonic antigen, a fetoprotein and protein clearance rations
K. Pregnancy tests on urine

5. Immunohistological Test

A. Detection of antigens, antibodies, immunoglobulins and complement components deposited in pathological lesions, particularly in the kidney and skin.
B. Characterization of plasma cells and lymphocyte types in relevant tissue biopsies, using immunofluorescent and enzyme-labeled techniques.


1. Differential leukocyte count.
2. Blood grouping (ABO & Rh)
3. WIDAL Test
4. VDRL Test
5. RA Test
6. CRP Test
7. Pregnancy Test & HIV Test
8. Monoclonal antibodies, applications in biomedical research, clinical diagnosis and treatment
9. HLA Typing
10. Immunological Techniques
A. Quality control and diagnostic immunology
B. Agglutination
C. Precipitation: Immunoelectrophoresis/SDS-PAGE
F. Immunoflourescence Techniques
G. Western blot
I. Flowcytometry