**A. The criteria points of prioritization of topic**

i. Relevance

ii. Avoidance of duplication

iii. Feasibility

iv. Political acceptability

v. Applicability

vi. Cost efficiencies

vii. Ethical consideration and scales for rating research topic mentioned above

**B. Work plan**

i. It’s content

ii. How to develop a work plan

iii. What factor should be kept in mind while preparing research work plan

C. Budget required for research work

i. Why it is needed?

ii. What should be taken in to consideration?

iii. Literature searching

iv. Statistical help

v. Material

vi. Type of manuscript

vii. Printing of manuscript for submission and postage

**16. Concepts of measurement**

a. Principals and reliability of measurement

b. Errors and sources of measurement,

c. Type of measurement

d. Measure of disease frequency and screening (introduction ,validity

and screening test)

**17. Designing clinical research**

a. Studies design (introduction, selection of design)

b. Research questionnaire

c. Validity and reliability of research finding, confounding factors

d. Strategies to deal with threats to validity

**18. Hypothesis test
19. Sampling**

a. Probability and non-probability and their sampling

b. Advantages and disadvantages of probability and non- probability sampling, bias in sampling

**20. Research protocol
21. Data collection**

COURSE CONTENTS:

1. Introduction to statistics

a. Statistical data condensation of data

b. Presentation of data by graphs

c. Health related data

d. Rates and their relative importance

e. Presentation of quantitative data

2. Sampling

a. Concept of sampling

b. Type and methods of drawing ideal sample

c. Sampling distribution of sample mean

d. Error of sampling

e. Standard error

f. Chi square

g. T-test and their uses in health

3. Central Tendency

a. Concepts of central tendency

b. Mean, mode and median and their value in health

c. Percentiles

d. Measure of dispersion

e. Coefficient of variation and skewness

f. Normal distribution

g. Range, Standard deviation and relative deviation

4. Hypothesis

a. Concept of Hypothesis testing

b. Null and alternative Hypothesis

c. Two type of errors

d. Acceptance and rejection regions

e. Two sided and one-sided tests

f. General steps in Hypothesis testing

g. Test about means, confidence interval for mean, meaning significance

in statistical procedures and methods of inferential statistics

5. Regression and correlation

a. Scatter diagram

b. Straight line regression model

c. Method of leastsquares

d. Sample correlation coefficient

e. Inference about regression coefficient and correlation coefficient

6. Introduction to Research

f. The question of legitimate knowledge

g. Knowledge and decision making, the scientific method

h. Quantitative vs qualitative research

i. Application of scientific method

j. Positivistic vs naturalistic paradigm

7. Classification of research

a. Basic vs applied research

b. Evaluation research

c. Research and development (R& D)

d. Action research

8. Selection and formulation of a problem

a. From generic to a specific problem, program statement

b. Getting an access to primary and secondary resources

c. Note taking and information to management

d. Review of related literature

e. Questions and/or hypothesis of the study

9. Development of a research plan

f. The ethical, legal and professional obligations

g. The rational of the study

h. The research planning

i. Evaluation of a research plan

10. Selection of sample

j. Sample and population

k. Basic considerations in sampling

l. Random sampling, stratified random sampling cluster sampling

m. Systematic sampling determination of sample size and elimination of

sampling bias

11. Instrumentation and data collection

12. Data analysis and interpretation

13. Preparation of research report

14. Introduction to research (in sample term and a scientific term), concept of

research, why do need research, advantage of research, identification of

research needs and its qualities, component of research, ethical and legal

aspect of research and objective of research (definition, purpose, structure)

15. Selection of topic

**1. Introduction to statistics**

a. Statistical data condensation of data

b. Presentation of data by graphs

c. Health related data

d. Rates and their relative importance

e. Presentation of quantitative data

**2. Sampling**

a. Concept of sampling

b. Type and methods of drawing ideal sample

c. Sampling distribution of sample mean

d. Error of sampling

e. Standard error

f. Chi square

g. T-test and their uses in health

**2. Central Tendency**

**a**. Concepts of central tendency

b. Mean, mode and median and their value in health

c. Percentiles

d. Measure of dispersion

e. Coefficient of variation and skewness

f. Normal distribution

g. Range, Standard deviation and relative deviation

**3. Hypothesis**

a. Concept of Hypothesis testing

b. Null and alternative Hypothesis

c. Two type of errors

d. Acceptance and rejection regions

e. Two sided and one sided tests

f. General steps in Hypothesis testing

g. Test about means, confidence interval for mean, meaning significance in statistical procedures and methods of inferential statistics

**4. Regression and correlation**

a. Scatter diagram

b. Straight line regression model

c. Method of least squares

d. Sample correlation coefficient

e. Inference about regression coefficient and correlation coefficient