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Pharmacology and Therapeutics-IIA (PHARM 512): Course Outline (Theory & Practical)

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics is the science of medicines and how they are used to diagnose, prevent and treat diseases and disorders in humans.

Course Outline (Theory)

Drugs acting on central nervous system

  • Sedatives & Hypnotic
  • Anxiolytics, antidepressants and antimanic drugs
  • cAntiepileptics
  • Antiparkinsonian and drug used in other neurodegenerative diseases.
  • Antipsychotics
  • Opioid analgesics
  • Therapeutic gases (Oxygen, Carbon-dioxide, Nitric oxide and Helium.
  • Cerebral Stimulants, Medullary stimulants, Spinal Cord Stimulants.
  • Anesthetics: General and local

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

  • Disease modifying drugs0
  • Antirheunatic drugs
  • Non-opioid analgesics and drugs used in the treatment of gout

Course Outline (Practical)

Practical of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the abovementioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities, e.g.

  • To study the convulsant effects of strychnine and picrotoxin in frogs and to determine the site of action.
  • To identify the unknown (convulsant) drug and determine its site of action.
  • To study the effects of Adrenaline on Human Eyes.
  • To study the effects of Pilocarpine on Human Eyes.
  • To study the effect of Homatropine on Human Eyes.
  • To identify and observe the effects of unknown drugs on Human Eyes.
  • To study the effects of local anaesthetic drugs on human and the nerve plexus of frog.
  • To identify and differentiate the effects of unknown drug on human and the nerve plexus of frog.
  • To demonstrate the effects of Acetylcholine on the Rectus abdominus muscle of frog and competitive pharmacological antagonism by Neuromuscular blocking agent e.g. Gallamine.
  • To identify the unknown drug by performing pharmacological competitive antagonism on Rectus abdominus muscle of Frog.
  • To study the anti-coagulant effects of Heparin and oral anti-coagulants on Rabbits.
  • To identify the unknown anticoagulant drug using Rabbits.
  • To demonstrate the Graded Dose-Response curve of Acetylcholine on Rabbit intestine.
  • To identify unknown concentration of Acetycholine from Graded Dose-Response curves.
  • To demonstrate the general anesthetic effect on rabbits.
  • To demonstrate the effect of sedatives and hypnotics on rabbits.
  • To demonstrate the anti-nociceptive (analagesic) effect on mice.
  • To demonstrate antidepressant effect in rats (forced swimming test, tail suspension test, Yohimbine lethality

Note: A minimum of 10 practicals should be conducted)