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Essentials of Biology: Course Outline

course code: BSBI613

Learning Outcomes

    • To understand fundamentals of botany and zoology with special reference to their role in food and nutrition
    • To study plant morphological characteristics and various animal classes through the dissection of representative plants and animals


Study of the morphology of selected ten monocot and plant species; Identification and technical description of common flowering plants belonging to ten families; Extraction of chlorophyll from the leaves and study of absorption spectra using spectrophotometer; Field observation and report writing on animals and their behavior in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems; Study of insect cuticle, fish scales, amphibian skin, feathers and mammalian skin; Study of heart, principal arteries and veins in a representative vertebrates (dissection of representative amphibian/fish/mammal).

Human Nutrition

 Human nutrition is the process by which substances in food are transformed into body tissues and provide energy for the full range of physical and mental activities that make up human life.The ultimate goal of nutritional science is to promote optimal health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease.


Botany: Morphology and anatomy of leaf, stem and roots in monocots and dicots; Flowers and inflorescence, their parts and types; Plant systematic, different system of classification and rules of nomenclature; Branches of ecology, their aims and application; Plant communities; Vegetation sampling methods; Ecosystem, its types and components; Food chain and food web; Pollution its types and impact on plants; Metabolic pathways, Light and dark reactions of photosynthesis; Importance of photosynthesis to plant productivity; Respiration, respiratory substrates; Plant water relation, absorption and translocation of water and minerals; Functional role of minerals elements in plants; Growth, role of hormones in plants growth and development; Ethno botany and economic importance of plants.

Zoology: Diversity of life; World resources, Classification of animals, Scope of Zoology; Community structure and diversity; Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem; Ecological problems; Human population growth; Pollution; resource depletion; Approaches to animal behavior; Proximate and ultimate causes; Anthropomorphism; Development of behavior; Learning and control of behavior; Communication; Social behavior; Evolutionary mechanism; Population size, Genetic drift, Gene flow, Mutations, and balanced polymorphism; Species and speciation; Molecular evolution; Mosaic evolution; Protection, Support and Movement in animals; Modes of communication; Endocrine systems and chemical messengers; Circulation, Immunity and gas exchange, Nutrition and Digestion; Temperature and body fluid regulations, Reproduction and development in animals.

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