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Physiology: Course Outline (318-B)

This course presents a general discussion of basic sciences related to the technical procedures in dentistry. It includes the principles of anatomy and physiology and dental anatomy.


Coordinated body functions

a. Circulation

  • Plasma
  • the blood cell 
  • Pressure 
  • flow and resistance
  • Anatomy
  • Heartbeat coordination
  • Mechanical events of the cardiac cycle
  • The cardiac output 
  • Measurement of cardiac function
  • Arteries 
  • Arterioles 
  • Capillaries
  • veins
  • The lymphatic system
  • Baroreceptor reflexes
  • Blood volume and long term regulation of arterial pressure
  • Other cardiovascular reflexes and responses
  • Hemorrhage and other causes of hypotension
  • the upright posture
  • Exercise 
  • Hypertension 
  • Heart Failure
  • Coronary artery disease and heart attacks
  • Formation of platelet plug

i) Blood coagulation

  • Clot pormation
  • Anticlotting systems 
  • Anticlotting drugs

b. Respiration 

  • Organization of the respiratory system
  • Ventilation and lung mechanics
  • Exchange of gfases in alveoli and tissues
  • Transport of oxygen in blood
  • Transport of carbon dioxide in blood
  • Transport of hydrogen ions between tissues and lungs 
  • Control of respiration
  • Hypoxia 
  • Nonrespiratory functions of the lungs

c. The kidneys and regulation of water and inorganic ions

  •  Renal functions
  • Structure of the kidneys and urinary system
  • Basic renal process
  • The concept of renal clearance micturition
  • Total body balance of sodium and water Basic renal process for sodium and water
  • Renal sodium regulation 
  • Renal water regulation 
  • A summary example
  • the response to Sweating
  • Thirst and Salt Appetite 
  • Potassium regulation
  • Effector sites for calcium homeostasis
  • Hormonal controls 
  • Metabolic bone disease
  • Source of hydrogen ion gain or loss 
  • Buffering of hydrogen ions in the body
  • Integration of homeostatic controls
  • Renal mechanisms
  • Classification of acidosis and alkalosis
  • Diuretics 
  • Kidney disease

d. The digestion and absorption of food (Overview)

  • Functions of the gastrointestinal organs
  • Structure of the gastrointestinal tract wall
  • Digestion and absorption 
  • Regulation of gastrointestinal processes
  • Pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract

e. Regulation of organic metabolism

  • Events of the absorptive and postabsorptive states
  • Growth and energy balance
  • Endocrine and neural control of the absorptive and postabsorptive states 
  • Fuel homeostasis in exercise and stress diabetes mellitus
  • Hypoglycemia as a cause of symptoms
  • Regulation of plasma cholesterol 
  • Bone growth 
  • Environmental gactors
  • Influencing growth
  • Hormonal influences on growth
  • compensatory growth
  • Basic concepts of energy expenditure
  • Regulation of total body energy stores
  • Regulation of body temperature

f.  Reproduction

  • General principles of gametogenesis
  • Anatomy
  • Spermatogenesis
  • Transport of sperm 
  • Hormonal control of male reproductive functions
  • Ovarian function 
  • Control of ovarian function
  • Uterine changes in the menstrual cycle 
  • Other effects of estrogen and progesterone
  • Androgens in women 
  • Female sexual response
  • Pregnancy 
  • Sex determination
  • Sex sifferentiation
  • Puberty
  • Menopause

g. Defense mechanisms of the body

  • Cells mediating immune defenses
  • Nonspecific immune defenses 
  • Specific immune defenses
  • Systemic manifestations of infection factors that alter the body’s resistance to infection
  • Harmful immune responses 
  • Absorption 
  • Storage sites
  • Excretion
  • Biotransformation
  • Functions of cortisol in stress
  • Functions of the sympathetic nervous system in stress
  • Other hormones released during stress psychological stress and disease



Relevant Books