Biochemistry: Pharmaceutical Chemistry-IIB (324) (325)
Biochemistry is a branch of science concerned with the chemical and physico-chemical processes and substances which occur within living organisms.
1. METABOLIC FATE OF BIOMOLECULES (Anabolism and Catabolism):
a. Carbohydrates: Introduction to metabolism, Brief introduction to the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, Aerobic and anaerobic breakdown of Glucose, Glycolysis, Pentose Phosphate Pathway, Glycogenolysis, Glycogenesis, Gluconeogenesis, Citric acid cycle, Energetics of various metabolic processes.
b. Lipids: Brief introduction to the digestion and absorption of lipids, Oxidation of fatty acids through b-oxidation, Biosynthesis of fatty acids, neutral lipids and cholesterol.
c. Proteins and Amino acids: Brief introduction to the digestion and absorption of proteins and amino acids, Metabolism of essential and non-essential amino acids, Biosynthesis and catabolism of Haemins and porphyrin compounds.
d. Bioenergetics: Principles of bioenergetics. Electron transport chain andoxidative phosphorylation.
2. REGULATION OF METABOLIC PROCESSES
a. Role of Vitamins: Physiological role of Fat-soluble (A, D, E and K) and Water-soluble (Thiamin, Riboflavin, Pantothenic acid, Niacin, Pyridoxal phosphate, Biotin, Folic acid, Cyanocobalamin- members of B-complex family and Ascorbic acid), Coenzymes and their role in the regulation of metabolic processes.
b. Receptor mediated regulation (Hormones): Mechanism of action of hormones,
Physiological roles of various hormones, Site of synthesis and target sites of hormones.
c. Secondary Messengers: Role of cAMP, Calcium ions and phosphoinositol in the
regulation of metabolic processes.
d. Gene Expression: Replication, Transcription and Translation (Gene expression)
Introduction to Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Basic principles of Recombinant DNA technology, Pharmaceutical applications, Balance of Catabolic, Anabolic and Amphibolic processes in human metabolism, Acid-Base and Electrolyte Balance in Human body.
3. INTRODUCTION TO CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Introduction and Importance of the clinical chemistry. Laboratory tests in diagnosis of diseases including Uric acid, Cholesterol, Billirubin and Creatinine.
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