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Bio-Chemistry: Course Outline

Biochemistry is the branch of science that explores the chemical processes within and related to living organisms. It is a laboratory based science that brings together biology and chemistry.

Course Outline ( Basic Biochemistry-i RLT-603 )

Introduction of Biochemistry


  • Introduction to Biochemistry
  • Cell ( biomedical aspects )
  • Cell membrane structure and proteins

Body Fluids

  • Structure and properties of water
  • Weak acids and bases
  • Concept of pH and pK
  • Buffers, their mechanism of action
  • Body buffers


  • Definition and classification
  • Biochemical functions & Significance of Carbohydrates
  • Structure and properties of Monosaccharides & Oligosaccharides
  • Structure and properties of Polysaccharides

Metabolism of Carbohydrates

  • Digestion & Absorption of Carbohydrates
  • Glycolysis & its regulation
  • Citric acid cycle
  • Inter conversion of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins
  • Biochemistry of diabetes mellitus
  • Glycogenolysis


  • Classification of lipids
  • Fatty acids: chemistry
  • Structure and properties of Triacylglycerols and compound lipids
  • Cholesterol: Chemistry, Functions & clinical Significance
  • Digestion & Absorption of Lipids
  • Role of bile salts and bile acids
  • Metabolism & clinical Significance of Lipoproteins
  • Fatty acid oxidation biosynthesis and metabolism of Triglycerides
  • Metabolism & clinical Significance of Cholesterol
  • Ketone bodies

Amino Acids Peptides and Proteins

  • Amino acid: Classification
  • Functions and significance
  • Classification of proteins
  • Tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins
  • Fibrous proteins (collagen and elastins) and Globular proteins
  • Classification of proteins based on physiochemical properties
  • Digestion of Proteins & Absorption of Amino Acids
  • Transamination & Deamination of Amino Acids, deamination, methylation, decarboxylation,
    interconversion of amino acids.
  • Urea cycle
  • Specialized products formed from amino Acids
  • Metabolic disorders

Course Outline ( Basic Biochemistry-ii RLT 609 )


  • Introduction
  • Mechanisms of action
  • Classification and properties of enzymes
  • Coenzymes
  • Isozymes and proenzymes
  • Factors affecting enzyme activity
  • Regulation & Inhibition of Enzyme activity & enzymes inhibitors
  • Clinical diagnostic enzymology

Nucleic Acids

  • Structure, Functions & Biochemical Role of Nucleotides
  • Structure of nucleotide
  • Structure & Functions of DNA
  • Structure & Functions of RNA
  • Metabolism of Nucleic acids
  • Gout

Vitamins and Minerals

  • Classification of vitamins
  • Fat soluble vitamins and Water soluble vitamins
  • Deficiency effects

Molecular Biology

  • Replication of DNA
  • Transcription in Prokaryotes
  • Transcription in Eukaryotes
  • Translation: (Genetic Code) Protein Synthesis in Prokaryotes
  • Translation: (Genetic Code) Protein Synthesis in Eukaryotes
  • Structure organization of chromosomes, DNA & gene
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction


  • Classification & Mechanism of Action of Hormones
  • Steroid Hormones: Glucocorticoids and Mineralocorticoids
  • Insulin & Glucagon

Nutrition and Dietetics

  • Balanced diet
  • Role of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, their dietary sources and uses
    in the body
  • Quantitative and qualitative daily requirements of carbohydrates, fats,
    proteins, vitamins and minerals


  • Determination of enzymes
  • Urine examination (Chemical examination)
  • CSF examination
  • Examination of Pleural, pericardial, synovial fluids

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