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Physiology for BDS: Course Outline

The major objective is not to make dental students physiologist but certainly to encourage them to think "physiologically" when, in future practice, patients will be subjected to a wide variety of drugs, such as local anesthetics and antibiotics that affe

Course Outline 1

General Physiology / Cell

Basic concept:

  • Functional organization of human body
  • Homeostasis
  • Control systems in the body
  • Cell membrane and its functions
  • Transport through cell membrane
  • Genetics
  • Blood
  • Composition and General Functions
  • Plasma proteins
  • Red Blood Cell (Erythropoiesis)
  • Haemonglobin & Blood
  • Indices
  • Iron metabolism
  • Fate of Hb
  • White Blood Cells
  • Leucopoiesis, functions
  • Platelets
  • Haemostasis

Blood groups

  • Blood Transfusion & complications
  • Reticuloendothelial systems, spleen

Nerve and muscle

  • The neuron-structure & functions
  • Properties of Nerve Fibers
  • Physiology of action Potential
  • Including compound action potentials
  • Conduction of Nerve Impulse, Nerve
  • Degeneration and regeneration
  • Synapses
  • Structure of the muscle
  • Skeletal muscle contraction
  • Isometric and isotonic contraction
  • Smooth muscle contraction
  • Neuromuscular Transmission
  • Excitation-contraction coupling
  • Motor Unit
  • Neuromuscular Blockers
  • Gastrointestinal Tract
  • Structure and General Functions
  • Enteric nervous system (Gut Brain)
  • Mastication, Swallowing and their control
  • Functions and movements of Stomach
  • Functions and movements of small intestine
  • Functions and movements of large intestine 
  • Hormones of GIT
  • Vomiting and its pathway
  • Defecation and its pathway
  • Functions of Liver

Cardio Vascular system:

Introduction to heart & circulation:

  • Physiology of cardiac muscle
  • Action potential in atrial & ventricular
  • Muscle and pacemaker potential
  • Regulation of cardiac functions
  • Cardiac impulse-origin & propagation
  • Cardiac cycle- various events
  • ECG-Recording & interpretation
  • Functional types of blood vessels
  • Local control of blood flow
  • Systemic circulation,
  • Characteristics and control
  • Regulation of peripheral resistance
  • Arterial pulse
  • Arterial blood pressure (short/longTerm regulation)
  • Cardiac output
  • Heart sound/murmurs
  • Venous return & its regulation
  • Coronary circulation
  • Pulmonary circulation
  • Cerebral circulation
  • Cardiovascular changes during exercise

Respiratory System:

  • Organization / functions of respiratory tract
  • Functions of Lungs (respiratory & non respiratory
  • Mechanics of breathing
  • Protective reflexes
  • Lung volumes and capacities
  • Dead space
  • Diffusion of Gases (composition)
  • Ventilation / perfusion
  • Transport of C02 in blood
  • Regulation of respiration
  • (Nervous / Chemical)
  • Abnormal breathing
  • Hypoxia-types and effects
  • Physiology of Cyanosis
  • Physiology of high altitude
  • Oxygen debt

Course Outline 2

Clinical/Applied Concepts:

  • Abnormalities of the cell & its organelles
  • Anemia
  • Blood indices in various disorders
  • Leucopoiesis, Leucocytosis
  • Thrombocytopaenia
  • Clotting disorders
  • Blood grouping / cross matching & significance immunity
  • Nerve Injury
  • Rigor Mortis & Contractures
  • Myasthenia Gravis
  • Dysphagia, achlasia of esophagus
  • Examination of abdomen
  • Peptic Ulcer, pancreatitis
  • Gastric function tests
  • Vomiting and its effects
  • Diarrhoea
  • Jaundice, Liver function tests
  • Correlation of cardiac cycle with ECG & heart sounds
  • Jugular venous pulse
  • Radial/other pulses
  • Hypertension, types & effects
  • Types of shock
  • Types of respiration (intrapleural pressure, pneumothorax, Lung function tests spirometry)
  • Obstructive/Restrictive lung
  • Disease (FEV1 / FVC)
  • Ventilation / perfusion
  • Respiratory
  • Asphyxia
  • Hypoxia, cyanosis dyspnoea
  • Artificial respiration
  • Oxygen therapy

Recommended Modes of Assesment:

  • Continuous Internal Assessment ( as recommended by PM&DC).

Theory:

  • Descriptive: consisting of short essay questions and short notes.
  • Multiple choice questions (MCQ’s)

Oral & Practicals:

  • Viva voce: it should be about definitions, normal values, mechanisms, interpretations. drawing / labelling of graphs /diagrams. Conceptual questions should be asked.
  • Practical: Two experiments to be performed by the student OSPE (Objective structured practical examinations) should be encouraged.

Experimental Physiology:

  • Haematolgy
  • Study of the microscope determination
  • Haemoglobin (Hb%)
  • Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
  • Packed cell volume (PVC) Haematocrit
  • Bleeding time (BT)
  • Clotting time (CT)
  • Blood Groups
  • Study of Neubauer chamber
  • RBCs Count
  • Red cell indices
  • WBCs Count
  • Differential leucocyte Count (DLC)
  • Osmotic fragility of chest
  • Demonstration of prothrombin time and thrombin time
  • Respiratory System
  • Measurement of Pulmonary volumes and capacities (Spirometry) stethography
  • Examination of superficial reflexes
  • Examination of deep reflexes
  • Examination of sensory
  • Motor system
  • Clinical examination of cranial nerves
  • Cardiovascular system
  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • Examination of arterial pulse
  • ECG recording/interpretation
  • Measurement of arterial blood pressure
  • Effect of exercise & posture on BP
  • Examination of apex beat
  • Heart Sounds – auscultation of normal sounds/murmurs
  • Special Senses
  • Taste sensation
  • Recording of body temperature

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Reference Books

E-Books (Full Text)