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Clinical Sciences: Clinical Sciences-I Joint Structure, Physiology & Response to Injury (MSCS-773)

Clinical research is a branch of healthcare science that determines the safety and effectiveness (efficacy) of medications, devices, diagnostic products and treatment regimens intended for human use. These may be used for prevention, treatment, diagnosis

Clinical Sciences

This program provides students with an advanced level of skills in planning and implementing appropriate manual therapy treatment programs and build ups a high level of competence in the application of passive treatment techniques for articular and associated structures. Main focus of the program to determine the impact of research evidence in relation to the management of musculoskeletal disorders and how this may impact on treatment prescription in the individual case. Specific importance is given to determining indications for treatment, treatment prescription and progression, and determining prognosis and response to treatment. The program includes clinical placements where students will have the opportunity to develop clinical examination and treatment methods under the supervision of experienced and certified manual physical therapists. Students will become familiar with methods of treatment outcome evaluation and their role in manual therapy practice.  

Course Description

Clinical Sciences-I

Joint Structure, Physiology & Response to Injury

Credit Hours           3(2+1) 

This course provides physiotherapists with a background in joint structure, mechanics and response to injury which is essential knowledge for developing clinical reasoning skills. Specific content includes Structure and mechanics of ligament, mechanisms of injury and repair, inflammation following ligament injury, recovery of ligament mechanics, articular cartilage injury, degeneration & repair, response to joint surface injury, neurogenic inflammation, peripheral pain mechanisms following injury, biomechanical and neurophysiological effects of joint injury, biomechanical consequences of joint injury, clinical issues in anterior knee pain.

Course Objectives

  1. The students will have advance knowledge about the joint category, anatomy, physiology and biomechanics.
  2. The students will be able to understand the inflammatory response of the soft tissues, articular cartilage and ligaments.
  3. The students will be able to understand the mechanism of injury to the joints, healing and repair process of the ligaments and articular cartilage.
  4. The students will be able to understand the consequences of injury and its effects on the body over all function and posture.

Course Outline

1. Joint Categories:

  • Synarthrotic joints
  • Diarthrotic joints

2. Classification of Joints:

  • Joint classification according to MacConaill 
  • Joint classification according to Gray.

 3. Biomechanics and Terminology:

  • Shoulder
  • Elbow
  • Wrist and hand
  • Hip
  • Knee
  • Ankle and foot

4. Traumatology:

  • Vasoconstriction and vasodilatation
  • Edema
  • White Blood Cell Mobilization
  • Summary of  Trauma-induced inflammatory reaction

5. Immediately After Trauma (Irritation):

  • Acute stage-edema
  • Settled stage- Muscle Spasm
  • Chronic stage-Fibrous reaction

6.Dysfunction,Evaluation and Treatment :

  • Shoulder
  • Elbow
  • Wrist and Hand
  • Hip
  • Knee
  • Ankle & Foot

Course Outline

7. Pain; Mechanisms, Assessment and Management:

  • Neuroanatomic Basis
  • Modulation
  • Role of the Cerebral Cortex in pain perception
  • Chronic pain mechanisms
  • Pain Mediated Through the Sympathetic Nervous System

8. Joint Mechanoreceptor:

  • Mechanoreceptor type I
  • Mechanoreceptor type II
  • Mechanoreceptor type III
  • Mechanoreceptor type IV

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