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History and Perspectives in Psychology: Course Outline

Course Objectives

The main objective of this course is to:
a. Familiarize the students with history and foundations of Psychology and
also to familiarize them with different perspectives in Psychology.
b. Provide students a comprehensive understanding of theoretical basis of
human behavior i.e. basic concepts and application of major perspectives:
Psychodynamic, Behavioristic, Cognitive, Humanistic, Existential,
Gestalt and Islamic.

Course Outcome

At the completion of this course the students will be able to:

a. Understand the basic concepts and application of different perspectives enabling
them better understand explanation of human behavior as proposed by different
b. Apply theoretical knowledge about human behavior in the context of general and
in their area of specialization in particular.
c. Apply theoretical framework in their research projects

history and foundation of psychology

Psychology is a relatively young science with its experimental roots in the 19th century, compared, for example, to human physiology, which dates much earlier. As mentioned, anyone interested in exploring issues related to the mind generally did so in a philosophical context prior to the 19th century

Motto of psychology

Don't compare yourself with other people; compare yourself with who you were yesterday. If you change the way you look at things, the things you look at change. Between stimulus and response there is a space. In that space is our power to choose our response.

Course Content

Course Contents
Schools of Psychology
a. Brief history of Psychology
b. Structuralism
c. Functionalism
d. Greek contribution
Introduction to Perspectives
a. Major assumptions, major contributors and basic concepts
Biological Perspective
a. Heredity
b. Genes and chromosomes
c. Endocrine glandsPsychodynamic Perspective
a. Classical psychoanalysis
b. Neo-Freudians
Behavioristic Perspective
a. Classical conditioning
b. Operant conditioning
c. Social learning
a. Cognitive perspective by Aron Beck
b. Cognitive perspective by Albert Ellis
c. Cognitive perspective of appraisal and coping
d. Cognitive behavioral model
Humanistic Perspective
a. Abraham Maslow
b. Carl Rogers
Existential Perspective
a. Thomas Szaz
b. Victor Frankel
Gestalt Perspective
a. Fritz Perls
Socio-Cultural Perspective
Islamic Perspective in the light of teachings of Quran & Sunnah
a. Ibn e Sina, Al-Ghazali, Ashraf AliThanvi